S&S » Sources and referencing » How to cite » Abbreviations


Here are som standard abbreviations that are commonly used for citations and references:


Stands for


anon. anonymous Used when the author is unknown
ca. circa Used for approximate dates, f. ex ca. 1978
ch. chap. chapter  
ed. editor(s)  
et al. (et alii) and others Used to shorten author lists
ib., ibid. (ibidem) In the same text as previous citation Used when a reference is the same as the previous one. The page number can be different, for example “ibid., p. 56.”
idem, loc. cit. (loco citato) in the place cited At the same place as cited before
op. cit. (opere citato) Used when a quotation comes from the same source as cited earlier. Author names should be included to indicate the source. For example “Mandelson, op. cit., s. 99”.
p. page(s)  
rev. ed. revised edition For revised editions of books
s. l. (sine loco) without a place  
s. n. (sine nomine) without a name for unnamed publishers
suppl. supplement Used for example for supplementary issues of a journal
v. volume  
X?? uten år  

Last updated: December 19, 2017

Back to top